Risk assessment is the keystone of the safety management process providing the foundation on which all effective health and safety performance is based. Risk assessments should be performed by competent personnel, involve the personnel whose work they apply to and legally must be written down. Best practice involves a five-step process the first of which involves identification of hazards posed by materials, equipment, chemicals and work activities. This can be achieved by a site tour or inspection, review of documents and materials and consultation with staff. Safety inspections constitute a key means of checking proper controls are in place and also identifying new hazards. Done well they also constitute an effective tool for promoting a positive safety culture.